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Writing and APA Citation Resources: APA 7th

How to Use this Site

This site is designed for Cleary University students as a guide to APA 7th, the style used to format papers and capstones.

Puzzled? Watch Using the APA 7th Guide video (1:10).

  • To get started, use this APA Template 7th ed. Rev. 4-29-20.docx file to pattern your assignment formatting.  Consult this sample APA 7 student paper to see how a completed paper should look.
  • Below this main information box, you will find two columns of information, beginning with the REFERENCE FORMAT box and the IN-TEXT CITATIONS box.  Both boxes use an accordion menu.  You can check and compare how the most common information formats are referenced and cited within APA 7th.
  • Below those two main boxes, you will find additional links to resources that go into more detail and cover other topics beyond the basics.

Graduate students working on MBA Capstones should consult resources in the "Graduate and Professional APA 7 Resources" box.

REFERENCE FORMAT

Below are examples of how to format References:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, August 22). Preventing HPV-associated cancers. https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/hpv/basic_info/prevention.htm/
Price, D. (2018). Laziness does not exist. Medium. https://humanparts.medium.com/laziness-does-not-exist-3af27e312d01

  1. Author(s). Note: List each author's last name and initials as Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. If there is no author, spell out the name of the organization or site.
  2. (Year, Month Date). Note: Provide as specific a date as is available, but may be only the year. If there is no date use (n.d.).
  3. Title of page or section. Note: Italicize the title of the page.
  4. Source. Note: Usually the official name of the website. If the source would be the same as the author, you can omit the source to avoid repetition.
  5. URL
Harvard University. (2019, August 28). Soft robotic gripper for jellyfish [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=guRoWTYfxMs
Norton, R. (2006, November 4). How to train a cat to operate a light switch [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vja83KLQXZs2

  1. Author Note: List each author's last name and initials as Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. If there is no author, spell out the name of the organization or site.
  2. (Year, Month #).
  3. Title.
  4. [Video].
  5. YouTube.
  6. URL
Bedir, M., & Hilgefort, J. (2019). Fringes of technology and spaces of entanglement in the pearl river delta: Architectural Design, 89(1), 78-83. https://search-proquest-com.cleary.idm.oclc.org/docview/2166190940/B44D071C0EF943AAPQ/11?accountid=38027
How Stan Lee transformed the comics business: fantastic! incredible! amazing! (2018, November 13). Economist. https://search-proquest-com.cleary.idm.oclc.org/docview/2132424420/9A3638C5FA82459CPQ/45?accountid=38027
Schelzi, M. (2010, January 27). Comic book boy begins comic book class. University Wire. https://search-proquest-com.cleary.idm.oclc.org/docview/1764344807?accountid=38027

  1. Author's last name, First initial, Second initial. Note: Second initial may not be available. For articles with no author, begin the citation with the title of the article - see "How Stan Lee transformed..." example above.
  2. (Year). or (Year, Month Date). Note: Months should be spelled out, not abbreviated.
  3. Article title with only first word and proper nouns capitalized.
  4. Journal title,
  5. volume#(issue#), Note: Not all sources will have a volume and issue number.
  6. beginning page number-ending page number.
  7. URL
*This formatting is modified from official APA 7th so that Cleary U. instructors can more easily access articles referenced by students.
Brown, D. (2014). Bob Dylan: American troubadour. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. https://search-proquest-com.cleary.idm.oclc.org/legacydocview/EBC/1640517?accountid=38027

  1. Author's last name, First initial. Second initial. Note: Second initial may not be available.
  2. (Year).
  3. Book title,
  4. Publisher.
  5. URL
Statista. (2020, March 31). Products Suddenly Interesting During a Lockdown [Infograph]. https://www.statista.com/chart/21297/change-interest-products-lockdown/
United States Army. (2020). Soldier looking through microscope at samples inside lab. [Photograph]. https://www.goarmy.com/careers-and-jobs/about-army-stem/technology-jobs.html.

  1. Author Note: List each author's last name and initials as Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. If there is no author, spell out the name of the organization or site.
  2. (Year). or (Year, Month #).
  3. Title
  4. [Infograph]. or [Photograph].
  5. URL
This section covers government reports, technical reports, and research reports referred to as "grey literature." Grey literature also includes press releases, codes of ethics, grants, policy briefs, and others.
 
Baral, P., Larsen, M., & Archer, M. (2019). Does money grow on trees? Restoration financing in Southeast Asia. Atlantic Council. https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/in-depth-research-reports/report/does-money-grow-on-trees-restoring-financing-in-southeast-asia/
National Cancer Institute. (2019). Taking time: Support for people with cancer (NIH Publication No. 18-2059). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/takingtime.pdf

  1. Author Note: List each author's last name and initials as Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. If there is no author, spell out the name of the organization or site.
  2. (Year). or (Year, Month #).
  3. Title of report.
  4. Publisher Name.
  5. DOI or URL
The formatting of a dissertation or thesis will depend on how you access it. The first example below is from Cleary University's ProQuest database. The second example is from an open-source repository.
 
Heist, J. (2011). Information technology management, business processes, and strategic planning in the church (Publication No. 3440240). [Doctoral dissertation, Walden University]. ProQuest Religion Database. https://search-proquest-com.cleary.idm.oclc.org/docview/854064602?accountid=38027
Zambrano-Vazquez, L. (2016). The interaction of state and trait worry on response monitoring in those with worry and obsessive-compulsive symptoms [Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona]. UA Campus Repository. https://repository.arizona.edu/handle/10150/620615

  1. Author Note: List each author's last name and initials as Author, A. A.
  2. (Year). or (Year, Month #).
  3. Title of dissertation or thesis.
  4. [Doctoral dissertation, Name of University]. or [Master thesis, Name of University].
  5. Source. (This could be the name of the database or repository.)
  6. URL
*This formatting is modified from official APA 7th so that Cleary U. instructors can more easily access materials referenced by students.
Interviews may be classified as follows:
  • Published interviews may appear in magazines, recorded on the radio, from a TV show or YouTube video (among other places). Follow the format for the reference type (i.e., magazine article, YouTube video, etc.) if the interview has been published or officially recorded.
  • Personal interviews are those you conduct to obtain information. Because your reader cannot access the original interview, cite it as a personal communication.
    • Personal communications such as personal interviews, emails, text messages, online chats, telephone conversations, and unrecorded lectures do not appear in the references list in an APA manuscript. Check under "In-Text Citations" on this page for examples of how to represent personal interviews and other personal communications in the text of your paper.
  • Research participant interviews are those conducted by you as part of your research methodology. They do not require APA Style. APA has more instructions in section 8.36. Contact librarian@cleary.edu for more information.
Busch, H., & Silver, B. (1994). Why Cats Paint. Ten Speed Press.
Pyzdek, T. & Keller, P. (2018). Recognizing and capitalizing on opportunity. In The Six Sigma handbook. (5th ed., pp.61-143). McGraw Hill Education.

  1. Author Note: List each author's last name and initials as Author, A. A.
  2. (Year).
  3. Book chapter title. (If you are citing a specific chapter, otherwise leave it out.)
  4. Title of book. (Book title should be italicized.)
  5. (#th ed., pp. ##-##). The ordinal number (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.) edition of the book is indicated when possible, followed by the page numbers indicated by "pp." and followed by the specific page or page range of the material cited.
  6. Publisher.

IN-TEXT CITATIONS

Below are examples of how to format in-text citations.

Parenthetical citations:
  • According to the experts (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018), people can take steps to reduce their chances for getting cancer.
  • Situation more than personality may predict procrastination (Price, 2018).
Narrative citations:
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018) suggests there are steps people can take to reduce their chances for getting cancer.
  • Price (2018) asserts that, "Situational constraints typically predict behavior far better than personality..." (p. 5).

References:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, August 22). Preventing HPV-associated cancers. https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/hpv/basic_info/prevention.htm/
Price, D. (2018, March 23). Laziness does not exist. Medium. https://humanparts.medium.com/laziness-does-not-exist-3af27e312d01

Parenthetical citations:
  • It is difficult to study jellyfish because they are so fragile, being 95% water (Harvard, 2019).
  • Cats can be taught to turn on a light switch (Norton, 2006).
Narrative citations:
  • A recent Harvard (2019) video explains why jellyfish are so difficult to study.
  • According to Norton (2006), cats can be taught how to operate a light switch.

References:
Harvard University. (2019, August 28). Soft robotic gripper for jellyfish [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=guRoWTYfxMs
Norton, R. (2006, November 4). How to train a cat to operate a light switch [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vja83KLQXZs2
Parenthetical citations:
  • China's Pearl River Delta is experiencing an explosion of development and innovation due to expanding trade initiatives (Bedir & Hilgefort, 2019).
  • Stan Lee transformed comic books from a lowly art form to a cultural phenomenon ("How Stan Lee transformed the comics business...", 2018).
  • Portland State University offers a course on the philosophy and comic books (Schelzi, M., 2010).
Narrative citations:
  • Bedir and Hilgefort (2019) outline how trade and innovation is changing China's Pearl River Delta.
  • NA. [Note: Narrative citations are difficult to construct when your source's author is unknown, as is the case with the article "How Stan Lee transformed the comics business...".]
  • Student reporter Schelzi (2010) quotes Portland State University professor, Mike Fischetti, who states, "Comic books can go just as deep as any piece of literature, and they can be just as visual stunning as any film..." (para. 13).

References:
Bedir, M., & Hilgefort, J. (2019). Fringes of technology and spaces of entanglement in the pearl river delta: Architectural Design, 89(1), 78-83. https://search-proquest-com.cleary.idm.oclc.org/docview/2166190940/B44D071C0EF943AAPQ/11?accountid=38027
How Stan Lee transformed the comics business: fantastic! incredible! amazing! (2018, November 13). Economist. https://search-proquest-com.cleary.idm.oclc.org/docview/2132424420/9A3638C5FA82459CPQ/45?accountid=38027
Schelzi, M. (2010, January 27). Comic book boy begins comic book class. University Wire. https://search-proquest-com.cleary.idm.oclc.org/docview/1764344807?accountid=38027
Parenthetical citations:
  • Dylan's Wedding Song portrays the idea that love can be a weapon to exact justice (Brown, 2014).
Narrative citation w/quote:
  • According to Brown (2014), "Highway 61 Revisited contained the most adventurous lyrics of any rock songs to date..." (p.41).

Brown, D. (2014). Bob Dylan: American troubadour. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. https://search-proquest-com.cleary.idm.oclc.org/legacydocview/EBC/1640517?accountid=38027
Parenthetical citations:
  • Data shows that interest in powdered milk purchasing increased during the spring of 2020 (Statista, 2020).
  • The U.S. military advertises the possibility of soldiers participating in scientific professions (United States Army, 2020).
Narrative citations:
  • Statista (2020) recorded a significantly increased rate of interest in powdered milk by consumers in the spring.
  • The United States Army (2020) promotes the possibility that enlistees participate in science careers.

Statista. (2020, March 31). Products Suddenly Interesting During a Lockdown [Infograph]. https://www.statista.com/chart/21297/change-interest-products-lockdown/
United States Army. (2020). Soldier looking through microscope at samples inside lab. [Photograph]. https://www.goarmy.com/careers-and-jobs/about-army-stem/technology-jobs.html.
Parenthetical citations:
  • Research has shown that tropical deforestation is a significant contributing factor to global warming (Baral et al., 2019).
  • People diagnosed with cancer must deal with a myriad of emotions (National Cancer Institute, 2019).
Narrative citations:
  • Baral et al. (2019) analyze the state of deforestation in southeast Asia.
  • The National Cancer Institute (2019) maintains the importance for cancer patients to express their feelings in coping with the disease.

Baral, P., Larsen, M., & Archer, M. (2019). Does money grow on trees? Restoration financing in Southeast Asia. Atlantic Council. https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/in-depth-research-reports/report/does-money-grow-on-trees-restoring-financing-in-southeast-asia/
National Cancer Institute. (2019). Taking time: Support for people with cancer (NIH Publication No. 18-2059). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/takingtime.pdf
Parenthetical citations:
  • There have been few studies of how churches align their IT and business plans (Heist, 2011).
  • Anxiety can serve a useful role in one's life by contributing to success on the job, however, it can also become maladaptive and contribute to poor health (Zambrano-Vazquez, 2016).
Narrative citations:
  • Heist (2011) observed, "...many church organizations place an emphasis on IT, but not on the processes and planning" (p. 158).
  • In her recent dissertation, Zambrano-Vazquez (2016) examined how anxiety and certain neurological conditions are related.

Heist, J. (2011). Information technology management, business processes, and strategic planning in the church (Publication No. 3440240). [Doctoral dissertation, Walden University]. ProQuest Religion Database. https://search-proquest-com.cleary.idm.oclc.org/docview/854064602?accountid=38027
Zambrano-Vazquez, L. (2016). The interaction of state and trait worry on response monitoring in those with worry and obsessive-compulsive symptoms [Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona]. UA Campus Repository. https://repository.arizona.edu/handle/10150/620615
Parenthetical citations:
  • As librarian, I emailed faculty regarding the importance of the ProQuest database for student research (J. Scales, personal communication, February 4, 2020).
Narrative citations:
  • J. Scales (personal communication, February 4, 2020) stressed that ProQuest is an important resource for student research.

Because readers cannot retrieve the information in personal communications, personal communications are not included in the reference list; they are cited in the text only. For more information, consult the online APA webpage on personal communication.
Parenthetical citations:
  • Cats have their own distinct painting styles, though most of them prefer modern techniques (Busch & Silver, 1994).
  • Companies that use only three or four sigma have increased operating costs that waste money (Pyzdek & Keller, 2018).
Narrative citations:
  • Busch and Silver (1994) promoted the idea that cats create "art installations" when they scratch old furniture such as worn couches.
  • Pyzdek and Keller (2018) state that, "Companies operating at three or four signma typically spend between 24 and 40% of their revenues fixing problems (p. 5).

Busch, H., & Silver, B. (1994). Why Cats Paint. Ten Speed Press.
Pyzdek, T. & Keller, P. (2018). Recognizing and capitalizing on opportunity. In The Six Sigma handbook. (5th ed., pp.61-143). McGraw Hill Education.

MORE APA RESOURCES...

APA 7 Style and Grammar Guidelines Main Page

Selected Resources from the APA 7 Guide:

Bias-free language

Age

Disability

Gender

Sexual Orientation

DOIs and URLs (If the URL is too long...)

Grammar details

Missing Reference Information

Paper formatting details

Plagiarism

Quotations (Short quotations, block quotations, w/narrative or parenthetical citations)

Graduate and Professional APA 7 Resources

Graduate students can use the same rules outlined above with the exception of their program capstone project.  Program capstones should incorporate the paper formatting rules outlined for APA 7th Professional Papers. The professional rules include:

  • Professional title page - scroll down the linked page to see the professional title page example
  • Running head throughout paper
  • Abstract
  • Keywords

Example of correctly formatted professional paper in APA 7th